- 1 -
· hypothesis [ha··p·θ·s·s]
Their hypothesis is that watching excessive amounts of television reduces a person's ability to concentrate.
· speculation [·spekju·le··n]
The book is just a lot of idle speculation about the future.
· assumption [··s·mp·n]
Her plan is based on the underlying assumption that the economy will improve in the near future.
- 2 -
· proposal [pr··p··zl]
This proposal would be a less restrictive way of obtaining the same information.
· recommendation [·rek·men·de··n]
The president, according to a White House statement last week, has decided to accept our recommendation.
· proposition [·pr·p··z··n]
Right now, a significant minority (some 40 percent) of African-American voters already agrees with that proposition.
- 3 -
· impetus [··mp·t·s]
This is the primary impetus behind the economic recovery.
· momentum [m··ment·m]
They are each anxious to maintain the momentum of the search for a solution.
· incentive [·n·sent·v]
She had not only the incentive, but the necessary opportunity.
· encouragement [·n·k·r·d·m·nt]
He's so invested in this dream of becoming a writer that any encouragement sends him flying.
- 4 -
· assessment [··sesm·nt]
This was an uncharitable assessment of the reasons for the failure.
· appraisal [··pre·zl]
What is needed in such cases is a calm appraisal of the situation.
· estimate [·est·m·t]
At least one estimate puts the total tab at $7 million.
· judgment [·d··d·m·nt]
Our judgment as to the cause of his failure must rest on the evidence.
- 5 -
· disorganization [d·s··:ɡ·na·'ze··n]
Maybe this is just another manifestation of Democratic disorganization.
· chaos [·ke··s]
Whatever troubles arise, we'll have peace of mind amidst seeming chaos.
· turbulence [·t·:bj·l·ns]
The world situation is characterized by turbulence and intranquility.
· turmoil [·t·:m··l]
My emotional turmoil had drained me.
- 6 -
· appliance [··pla··ns]
He could also learn to use the vacuum cleaner, the washing machine and other household appliances.
· equipment [··kw·pm·nt]
The photographer came early to set up his equipment.
· device [d··va·s]
The device can discriminate between the cancerous and the normal cells.
· apparatus [··p··re·t·s]
They lacked the scientific personnel to develop the technical apparatus much further.
· instrument [··nstr·m·nt]
The veto has been a traditional instrument of diplomacy for centuries.
- 7 -
· coalition [·k····l··n]
The Liberal leader has announced his party's withdrawal from the ruling coalition.
· alliance [··la··ns]
Yet now he was here, in extremis, to seek an alliance.
· ally [··la·]
He is a close ally of the prime minister.
· union [·ju:ni·n]
In union there is strength.
- 8 -
· pastime [·pɑ:sta·m]
Reading always been an important part of learning and enjoyable pastime.
· recreation [·rekri·e··n]
All the family members need to have their own interests and recreations.
· diversion [da··v·:·n]
Finger painting is very messy but an excellent diversion.
- 9 -
· manner [·m·n·(r)]
The issue will be resolved in a manner that is fair to both sides.
· fashion [·f··n]
She speaks in a very strange fashion.
· approach [··pr··t·]
We will be exploring different approaches to gathering information.
· tactic [·t·kt·k]
The giant oil corporations are earning fabulous profits by cunning tactics.
Do you have any means of identification·
· channel [·t··nl]
The Americans recognize that the UN can be the channel for greater diplomatic activity.
- 10 -
· criteria [kra·'t··r··]
The criteria will be different from those that pertain elsewhere.
· norm [n·:m]
We conform to norms so readily that we are hardly aware they exist.
- 11 -
· advance [·d·vɑ:ns]
Medical technology has advanced considerably.
· headway ['hedwe·]
She has made remarkable headway in her writing skills.
- 12 -
· desire [d··za··(r)]
They seem to regain their desire for life.
· eagerness ['i:g·n·s]
He began to explain with the most considerable eagerness.
· urge [·:d·]
He had an urge to open a shop of his own.
· hunger [·h··g·(r)]
I can't understand why he seems to have no hunger for knowledge.
· yearning [·j·:n··]
He has always a yearning to be a schoolteacher.
- 13 -
· consciousness [·k·n··sn·s]
He is acutely conscious that this transition will bring with it the risk of social unrest.
· awareness [··we·n·s]
He introduced radio to the school to increase the children's awareness.
· perception [p·r·sep·n]
Another interesting issue deals with certain cultures' perception of beauty.
- 14 -
· disposition [·d·sp··z··n]
He was a man of decisive action and an adventurous disposition.
· personality [·p·:s··n·l·ti]
He has a very pleasant personality.
· temperament [·tempr·m·nt]
His impulsive temperament regularly got him into difficulties.
· nature [·ne·t··(r)]
She feels that her ambitious nature made her unsuitable for an arranged marriage.
- 15 -
· commitment [k··m·tm·nt]
They made a commitment to peace.
· pledge [pled·]
In the treaty both sides pledge to respect human rights.
· engagement [·n·ge·d·m·nt]
All his time seems to be taken up with social engagements.
- 16 -
· mood [mu:d]
People who struggle with excessive Internet use maybe depressed or have othermood disorder.
· emotion [··m···n]
A tide of emotion rose and clouded his judgment.
· sentiment [·sent·m·nt]
He found growing sentiment for military action.
- 17 -
· appeal [··pi:l]
The game has lost its appeal.
· fascination [·f·s··ne··n]
Water holds a fascination for most children.
· charm [t·ɑ:m]
'Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs', the 1937 Disney classic, has lost none of its original charm.
· lure [l··(r)]
The lure of rural life is proving as strong as ever.
Money is a kind of allurement for us.
Don't succumb to the temptation to have just one cigarette.
- 18 -
· responsibility [r··sp·ns··b·l·ti]
Responsibility and moderation were to be the keynotes of their foreign policy.
· obligation [··bl··ge··n]
Co-operation was more than just an attractive option, it was an obligation.
· accountability [··ka·nt·'b·l·t·]
Good management in the police cannot be divorced from accountability.
- 19 -
· option [··p·n]
The menu changes weekly and usually includes a vegan option.
· alternative [·:l·t·:n·t·v]
You have the alternative of riding or walking.
· preference [·prefr·ns]
Parents can express a preference for the school their child attends.
There is a wide selection of food available.
- 20 -
· contract [·k·ntr·kt]
A formal contract is signed which is renewable annually.
· pact [p·kt]
A non-aggression pact will be signed between the two countries.
· treaty [·tri:ti]
The treaty binds them to respect their neighbor's independence.
- 21 -
· payment [·pe·m·nt]
Thousands of its customers are in arrears with loans and mortgage payments.
· cost [k·st]
Companies are moving jobs to towns with a lower cost of living.
· spending [·spend··]
He's a staunch supporter of controls on government spending.
· expense [·k·spens]
They want to cut down their utility expenses.
It is questionable whether the expenditure on this project is really justified.
All vehicles travelling across the bridge have to pay a toll.
- 22 -
· distinction [d··st··k·n]
Many people make a sharp distinction between humans and other animals.
· divergence [da·'v·:d··ns]
A minimal error or deviation may result in wide divergence.
· discrepancy [d·s·krep·nsi]
The discrepancy in their ages seemed not to matter.
- 23 -
· paradox [·p·r·d·ks]
“More haste, less speed”is a paradox.
· contradiction [·k·ntr··d·k·n]
Once the principal contradiction is grasped, all problems will be readily solved.
· controversy [·k·ntr·v·:si]
They had a bitter controversy over the question.
· dispute [d··spju:t]
They agreed to try to settle their dispute by negotiation.
- 24 -
· tendency [·tend·nsi]
Matters have taken a new tendency towards peace.
· inclination [··nkl··ne··n]
He did not show the slightest inclination to leave.
- 25 -
· barely [·be·li]
We could barely see the other cars because of the fog.
· scarcely [·ske·sli]
His style could scarcely be further removed from that of his predecessor.
- 26 -
· promptly [·pr·mptli]
Responding promptly to accidents and other emergencies is important, but it is their smallest job.
· instantly [··nst·ntli]
I recognized her instantly she entered the room.
- 27 -
· prior to [·pra··(r)]
Prior to that time, buffalo had roamed the Great Plains in tremendous numbers.
· previously ['pri:v··sl·]
The device had been used operationally some months previously.
· in advance [·d·vɑ:ns]
Clients normally pay fees in advance, monthly, quarterly, or yearly.